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Knee

The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee bends. The fibula is a shorter and thinner bone running parallel to the tibia on its outside. The joint acts like a hinge but with some rotation.

The knee is a synovial joint, which means it is lined by synovium. The synovium produces fluid lubricating and nourishing the inside of the joint. Articular cartilage is the smooth surfaces at the end of the femur and tibia. It is the damage to this surface which causes arthritis.

Knee Anatomy
Conditions
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    Ligament Injuries The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy.
     
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    Meniscal Injuries Meniscal tears are one among the common injuries to the knee joint. It can occur at any age, but are more common in athletes playing contact sports.
     
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    Patellar Tendinitis Patellar tendinitis, also known as “jumper’s knee” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone.
     
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    Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people.
     
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    Iliotibial Band Syndrome Iliotibial band syndrome is an overuse injury resulting from the inflammation of iliotibial band. Iliotibial band is a tough group of fibres that begins at the iliac crest …
     
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    Patellar Dislocation Patella (knee cap) is a protective bone attached to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh by quadriceps tendon.
     
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    Cartilage Injury Articular cartilage is a complex avascular (no blood supply) tissue which consists of cells called chondrocytes suspended in a collagenous matrix.
     
Surgical Procedures
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    ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon The ACL is the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It prevents the tibia (Shin bone) moving abnormally on the femur (thigh bone).
     
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    Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint The arthroscope is a fiber-optic telescope that can be inserted into a joint (commonly the knee, shoulder and ankle) to evaluate and treat a number of conditions.
     
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    Uni Condylar Knee Replacement Unicondylar knee replacement simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement.
     
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    Total Knee Replacement A Total Knee Replacement (TKR) or Total Knee Arthroplasty is a surgery that replaces an arthritic knee joint with artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.